Deepwater riser systems have been acknowledged by the industry as representing critical technology for current planned and future field developments. compliant tower, the construction of which forms the basis of this dispute, is a platform, designed to flex with the forces of wave, wind, and current, that is fixed permanently to the Outer Continental Shelf. platform and foundation. The 4000-tonne North Module was installed in November 1998, but the attempt to install the slightly lighter South Module in December of that year ended with the unit on the seabed. Compliant towers can be constructed using techniques that have evolved for steel-jacket structures. Nevertheless, these systems add to the range of options available to develop deepwater fields. 7b. This is undesirable for operational reasons and often requires use of flexible riser systems to compensate for the movement. Several proven types of platform were initially considered, among them ship-shaped vessels, semisubmersibles, TLPs, and spars. If you would like to help us illustrate this page, do not hesitate to send us your images! The interaction between risers and moorings is self-evident. 2009: Mad Dog Design and manufacture of the world’s largest rig skidding system. The consequence of this is the structure becomes dynamically responsive, and fatigue becomes a paramount consideration. Compliant towers are designed to sustain significant lateral deflections and forces, and are typically used in water depths ranging from 1,500 to 3,000 feet (450 to 900 m). 7b—Terra Nova FPSO (Photographic Archives, Petro-Canada/Terra Nova). Fig. They have less weight and, in the taut configuration, provide lower vessel movement and a reduced footprint on the seabed. The multi-deck topsides are 64 metres by 43 metres by 18.3 metres high and hold 21 well slots, and the entire structure weighs around 43,000 tons. The platform is situated to exploit the Petronius field, discovered in 1995 in Viosca Knoll (block VK 786) and named after Petronius, the Roman writer. For wet trees, possible development concepts include all of these plus ship-shaped floating production systems and semisubmersible production systems. All rights reserved. Therefore, care is required in the analysis and design of the foundation system. Ship-shaped production vessels, although used extensively around the world, were ruled out because of riser load and the technical infeasibility of bringing fluids at high temperatures and pressures onto a weathervaning vessel using the industry’s standard solution of a moving swivel. The platform comprises a deck structure and a buoyant hull that is composed of a series of vertical cylindrical columns, horizontal submerged pontoons, and, in some instances, tubular member bracing. Around 8,000 m³ (50,000 barrels) of oil and 2,000,000 m³ (70 million cubic feet) of natural gas are extracted daily by the platform. To overcome the weight problems associated with wire/chain moorings, synthetic materials, such as polyester, are being evaluated and have been applied as a replacement for conventional steel ropes and chain mooring systems. Flexible risers and steel catenary risers (SCR) are two common systems available to the subsea engineer. No media files are currently available for this data page. The dynamic response of a compliant tower is crucial, and dynamic analyses form part of the design process for this structure. Structurae Version 7.0 - © 1998-2021 Nicolas Janberg. Fig. The rig consists of narrow, flexible (compliant) towers and a piled foundation supporting a conventional deck for drilling and production operations. Other forms of deep-draft floaters include deep-draft semisubmersibles and hull arrangements other than the arrangement shown in Fig. Spar platforms were looked at closely. The majority of offshore fields have been developed with conventional fixed steel platforms. Approximately 60,000 barrels of oil and 100 million cubic feet of natural gas are produced daily by the Petronius platform. Further, many of the conventional mooring systems are deployed in the catenary configuration, giving low stiffness, which allows considerable offsets and poor response. It stands at 609.9 metres (2,001 feet) above the seabed, though only 75 metres (246 feet) are above water. Baldpate Compliant Tower is the first free-standing tower that is not supported by external ropes, at the same time it is one of the highest structures in the world, it even exceeds CN Tower . SPE disclaims any and all liability for your use of such content. The first phase included the installation of the CPT foundation part which comprised of the Leveling Pile template, Leveling Piles, the Tower Base Template and the Foundation piles. Petronius is a deepwater compliant tower oil platform operated by Chevron in the Gulf of Mexico, 210 km southeast of New Orleans, United States. Located around 6,000 ft of water depth, the field’s reserves are contained within eight adjacent offshore license blocks, making it impossible to reach all reserves from a single drilling center. All wells, some local to the platform, others as far as 6 miles away, will be completed as subsea wells with wellhead control trees located on the seabed, tied back by flowlines and risers to the platform. Tendons may be attached to the template or directly to the piles. The advantages and disadvantages for each option are considered at the design stage from both engineering (redundancy, robustness, etc.) Nevertheless, while the foundation system may appear elaborate, the advantages are considerable. The cost of the project has been estimated at $500m. In: Marine Structures , v. 37 (July 2014) , pp. These and other factors have resulted in the selection of a semisubmersible production unit (see Fig. The topsides equipment and facilities are not dissimilar to those usually deployed for fixed steel structures. A compliant tower (CT) is a fixed rig structure normally used for the offshore production of oil or gas. A floating production system is effectively a floating rig. The compliant tower design is more flexible than conventional land structures to cope better with sea forces. However, the buoyancy requirements for a TLP may be two to five times that of a semisubmersible, and, therefore, construction facilities used for semisubmersibles may be too small for TLP fabrication. VIV and VIM can significantly reduce the fatigue life of both the riser and the wellhead. 2, adopted for the Lena platform in the Gulf of Mexico) are sized on the principle of “compliance” to wave attack. Petronius (oil platform): Petronius is a deepwater compliant tower oil platform operated by Chevron Corporation and Marathon Oil in the Gulf of Mexico, 210 km southeast of New Orleans, United States. ). A spread of mooring lines is used for station keeping during production, and flexible flow lines are adopted, which permit wave-induced vessel motions to be absorbed. It is significantly larger than any previous topside facility installed on a compliant tower substructure (Petronius ‘ 7,500 s.t., Baldpate ’ 9,800 s.t. TLPs carry the disadvantage in such a water deep, their rigid steel tendons anchoring the floating hull to the seabed become too heavy and costly. In this instance, intermediate structural bracing can be accommodated because barge clearance is not required. Fig. A compliant tower (CT) is a fixed rig structure normally used for the offshore production of oil or gas. Situated in 1,648 ft of … Riser spacing design is of prime importance; As illustrated in Fig. This forces the natural period to be less than that of the damaging significant wave energy, which lies in the 8- to 20-second band. The Petronius compliant tower is approximately 1870 feet in height, weighs approximately 43,000 tons, and is 1998: Design and manufacture of the Petronius Compliant Tower leveling system operating in 1500 feet water depth. A deep-draft floater is a floating system that is provided with a deep-draft hull designed to minimize heave motions. For all floating systems, a range of stability criteria is followed to ensure system stability in calm waters with sufficient safety margins to allow for the dynamic conditions of stormy seas. The platform is situated to exploit the Petronius field, discovered in 1995 in Viosca Knoll (block VK 786) and named after Petronius, the Roman writer. At present the deepest is the Chevron Petronius tower in waters 623m deep. The leveling jacks were among the largest ever produced. 8a—Worldwide fleet of installed and sanctioned semisubmersible FPS (courtesy of BP). It was built from 1997 to its completion in May 2000, at a cost of $500 million. Another compliant structure is the guyed tower, which is a slender truss-steel structure supported on the sea floor by a spud-can foundation and … The facility is located at 28°13′44″ N/−87°47′51″ W and the area within 500 meters (1640.4 feet) from each point on the facility structure's outer edge is a safety zone. It can deflect (sway) in excess of 2% of height. 2). The platform is tethered to the seabed by a number of tendons that are kept in tension at all times by the excess buoyancy in the hull. Construction began in 1997 by J Ray McDermott with the seabed mooring system. These systems are equally complex in design and in response predictions. from Toronto. The primary considerations for stability revolve around the location of the center of gravity and the relative location of the center of buoyancy; see Fig. One of the functions of the moorings is to guarantee the integrity of the risers, but moorings are subject to practical limits regarding their numbers and strength. We’re pushing it to new limits, new extremes. One other noteworthy riser system is shown in Fig. The production risers may suffer from vortex-induced vibrations (VIV) caused by the current, especially in high-current regions such as the Gulf of Mexico and the West of Shetlands. The choice between these two and other floating production systems depends on the fundamental decision on the need for dry-trees or wet-trees. Texaco & Marathon. [3,658 bytes] Off to a blistering start, Texaco's Petronius compliant tower was about to set an industry record for time from spudding to … As water depth increases, the length and, hence, weight of conventional wire and chain mooring systems increase. To maximize production, seawater must be injected into the reservoir from the outset. These tendons suppress the heave motions, and the tension ensures that the platform remains virtually horizontal even at lateral excursions of up to 10% of the water depth. 4—Riser spacing and contact considerations (courtesy of BP). The Petronius compliant tower structure is located in Viosca Knoll Block 786, about 130 miles southeast of New Orleans. These are among the highest yet to be handled in the offshore industry. Lateral excursions are controlled because the tendons develop a restoring force as lateral movements take place. The field’s operator Texaco owns 50% of the field, while the remaining 50% is owned by Marathon. Another hurdle to overcome is at the top of the riser where the well fluids are transferred to the processing deck. 5 has successfully been deployed for the Horn Mountain field and has been chosen for the Holstein field, both of which are in the Gulf of Mexico. Deep-draft floaters, either of the cylindrical arrangement (such as spars) or of the semisubmersible configuration, are likely to find increasing favor in deepwater applications in the future. The Benguela Belize Topsides dry weight of 33,300 s.t. Around 8,000 m³ (50,000 barrels) of oil and 2,000,000 m³ (70 million cubic feet) of natural gas are extracted daily by the rig. While this is standard industry practice, it has never before been executed at the injection rates and pressures needed for Thunder Horse. The mooring system is designed to accommodate a platform offset of several hundred feet for drilling or workover purposes. A keel section at the base of the truss is specified for buoyancy during towing and contains fixed ballast. Deep draft floaters for water depths up to 10,000 ft. The Petronius Platform is a compliant tower in the Gulf of Mexico modeled after the Hess Baldpate platform, which stands 2000 ft above the ocean floor. The rig is a compliant tower and is the largest freestanding structure in the world at 2,010ft. Alternatively, a single-piece construction can be adopted for the deck and hull with equipment and facilities placed on the completed platform. The systems can be designed for storage capability as well. Help with editing, Content of PetroWiki is intended for personal use only and to supplement, not replace, engineering judgment. The lower section is a braced truss system with heave plates to achieve the desired heave motion characteristics. This is the deepest structure attached to the bottom of the sea. The size and type of reservoir and the anticipated extent and cost of well intervention often dictate the selection of dry vs. wet trees. The foundation system is subjected to cyclic loads superimposed on a high-tension load. For FPSs, it is perhaps revealing to consider the approach adopted by BP in its currently ongoing development for the Thunder Horse deepwater field in the Gulf of Mexico. The influence of this and other factors, notably the very large topsides load and the requirement for multiple well centers to access the entire reservoir, finally led to selection of a semisubmersible, but one with a difference—its scale. Fig. The Petronius compliant tower sits in 1,754 ft of water and rises to more than 2,000 ft above the seafloor, making it the world's tallest freestanding structure, according to Texaco. Corporation and Marathon Oil in the Gulf of Mexico, 210 km southeast of New Orleans, United States. As the water depth increases, these structures begin to become more flexible, and the natural period increases and approaches that of the waves. 6. ], Use this section to list papers in OnePetro that a reader who wants to learn more should definitely read, Use this section to provide links to relevant material on websites other than PetroWiki and OnePetro, Fixed steel and concrete gravity base structures, Flow assurance for offshore and subsea facilities, Flexible risers and steel catenary risers (SCR), https://petrowiki.spe.org/index.php?title=Compliant_and_floating_systems&oldid=46966, 4.5 Offshore facilities and subsea systems, Copyright 2012-2021, Society of Petroleum Engineers, Compliant towers for water depths up to 3,000 ft, Tension leg platforms (TLPs) for water depths up to 5,000 ft with the potential for application to 7,000 ft following further development effort, Floating production systems for water depths up to 7,000 ft. The rig consists of narrow, flexible (compliant) towers and a piled foundation supporting a conventional deck for drilling and production operations. Vertical and lateral stability is assured through the use of either flotation devices (Fig. (b) Regulation. The freestanding compliant tower concept (Fig. Locating the piles near the center of the tower, limiting the maximum tower deflections, and selecting piles of sufficient length to absorb the imposed loads can limit the resulting stresses in the piles. The matter of riser contact and clashing is covered in the TLP subsection above. A number of options exist for the placement of the template(s) and piling. 1-32. Fig. Text imported from Wikipedia article "Petronius (oil platform)" and modified on 23 July 2019 under the CC-BY-SA 3.0 license. Wet trees, so-called because the wellheads and Christmas trees are placed on the seabed. Kaiser, Mark J. Assessments for the risk of mooring failure should therefore reflect this unavoidable interaction between the adopted riser and mooring systems. The concept shown in Fig. Floating structures must increase in size to provide the necessary buoyancy to carry the extra weight, which adds incremental cost to the development. The tendons are secured in a foundation template piled into the seabed. Spars supporting the weight of the dry-tree steel risers and keeping these in tension becomes a critical factor. You must log in to edit PetroWiki. Riser towers allow multiple flow lines to be installed in a small area without interference with mooring lines and each other. The compliant tower design was chosen for its ability to withstand hurricane conditions and operate in depths of 2,000ft (610m). Abstract The Baldpate compliant tower, in Garden Banks block 260 in the Gulf of Mexico, is the first free standing, non-guyed compliant tower. 4, if the design principle were for no contact between the risers, a cost penalty in ultra-deep water would be expected; If contact between risers is the accepted design principle, it is then important to predict their dynamic behavior, evaluate the impact energy during contact, and define acceptance criteria. Do you really want to delete this item from your favorites? 8a), which will serve as a processing, drilling, and quarters platform for the field, supporting up to 40 production and injection wells. The high-pressure/high-temperature conditions on Thunder Horse also demand that the risers be heavy walled, adding to the weight problem. The newest generation of compliant tower designs is represented by the 1998 installation of: (1) Amerada Hess' Baldpate compliant tower at Garden Banks Block 260 in 1,650-ft water depths; (2) Texaco's Petronius tower, designed for installation at Viosca Knoll Block 786 offshore Louisiana in … 1 and Fig. All the concepts discussed and described allow for the wellheads and Christmas tree valve systems to be above the waterline (i.e., in the dry). Petronius is a deepwater compliant tower oil platform operated by Chevron . 5—A typical truss spar (courtesy of BP). The benefit is the reduced construction time. A number of offshore platform concepts exist that meet the dry tree requirement. This page was last edited on 2 June 2015, at 22:32. The upper section of the hull is a conventional cylindrical shell and provides the required buoyancy for the platform. Operated by Chevron Corporation and Marathon Oil, Petronius is a deepwater oil platform; the compliant piled tower is 2,001 feet high and extends 1,754 feet above the seabed. 1—The Baldpate Compliant Tower is one of the tallest free-standing structures in the world – Empire State Building (right) for comparison (Web Photograph, Amerada Hess Corp., New York City). International Database and Gallery of Structures, Offshore Technology: Petronius, Gulf of Mexico, USA. Development The type of field development concept utilized, in particular the choice between wet and dry trees, significantly affects all aspects of the development, from the appraisal strategy and development concept to reservoir and field management. Petronius is a deepwater compliant tower oil platform operated by Chevron Corporation and Marathon Oil in the Gulf of Mexico, 210 km southeast of New Orleans, United States. Exxon in 1983 installed the first guyed tower named Lena Guyed tower in the Mississippi Canyon Block in 1000 ft (300 m) water depth. 3—TLP concept (Photographic Services, Shell Intl., London). On a spar platform, the relative movement between risers and floating platform is pronounced. They can be designed with very low heat loss coefficients to minimize flow assurance problems. 2013: Invented Dual chain handling Chain wheel for costs and weight savings for chain handling on mooring systems. The platform will be held on station by 16 mooring lines made of chain and steel wire rope. The reservoir itself lies deep below the seabed—some zones are more than 3.7 miles down; others lie below salt formations, requiring costly and time-consuming wells. 2, adopted for the Lena platform in the Gulf of Mexico) are sized on the principle of “compliance” to wave attack. Typical fixed platform design practices are applicable for the topside configurations with the exception that, because the spar is a floating system, lateral accelerations are higher. More information. 7a and Fig. The lower portion is a heavy chain with clump weights, which are lifted off the bottom during heavy seas and behaves as a soft spring making the tower more compliant. All data contained herein is subject to change and is provided without warranties. Compliant tower platforms general guidance for analysis, construction and installation. This system has been deployed for the Girassol FPSO in West Africa in 4,500 ft of water. In fact, it is taller than the Eiffel tower. As the floating structure heels, it gives rise to a restoring moment, which stabilizes the system. An example of a deep-draft facility designed by CSO Aker is shown in Fig. makes it one of the largest topside facilities in the world. 6—Stability of floating systems (courtesy of MSL Engineering). As the structure deflects, significant tension-compression coupling forces are introduced in the piles. Use this section for citation of items referenced in the text to show your sources. 2—Guyed tower concept (Photographic Archives, ExxonMobil). The platform has a compliant piled tower design which stands on a mooring system based on 12 piles, three at each corner leg, which extend 450ft through the mudline into the seabed. 1, adopted for the Petronius platform in the Gulf of Mexico) and the guyed tower concept (Fig. Mooring is achieved using a taut system of mooring lines composed of chain and wire or polyester. Petroleum stubs A compliant tower(CT) is a fixed rig structure normally used for the offshore production of oilor gas. Guyed tower concept The freestanding compliant tower concept (Fig. / Liu, Mingming (2014): Decommissioning cost estimation in the deepwater U.S. Gulf of Mexico – Fixed platforms and compliant towers. The Tombua-Landana project is using established technology . The Petronius Compliant Tower facility is in the deepwater area of the Gulf of Mexico at Viosca Knoll Block 786. Installation of the Tombua Landana Compliant Tower was split into two phases. The Tombua-Landana compliant tower is located in 1,208 feet of water, which makes it one of the deepest fixed structures in the world. Additional steelwork is required to stiffen the structure. A payload of up to 50,000 tons can be accommodated, including drilling or workover rig and full production equipment. A conventional FPS typically uses either a semisubmersible to accommodate the equipment and utilities or a ship-shaped monohull, the latter often built from converted oil tankers. and economic standpoints. The Petronius compliant tower was installed in four sections: foundation, bottom section, top section, and module support frame in Viosca Knoll 786. 5. The restriction on vertical movement permits the use of fixed-steel-platform-type wellhead equipment and rigid steel riser conductor assemblies. A unique combination of characteristics is at play in the Thunder Horse field, dictating the facilities for the project. 1, adopted for the Petronius platform in the Gulf of Mexico) and the guyed tower concept (Fig. The lines are moored to the seabed using a vertically loaded anchor. From an engineering and economic perspective, cost-effective steel-jacket structures are extremely difficult, if not impossible, to design beyond 1,500 ft. To circumvent this problem for water depths beyond 1,500 ft, the industry has developed concepts that work on the other side of the damaging significant wave energy (i.e., structures that have natural periods of greater than 20 seconds). Fig. The contract for the platform was budgeted at $200 million with total costs of around $500 million. A TLP deck may be fabricated separately from the hull and mated in a manner similar to that adopted for concrete gravity base platforms. These are sometimes referred to as subsea completions. The TLP is not dissimilar to a semisubmersible, and construction techniques developed for semisubmersibles can be deployed for TLPs. Compliant towers are three-dimensional (3D) steel truss arrangements, which are slender and have a seabed footprint substantially less than an equivalent steel-jacket structure; see Fig. 5. Texaco completes Petronius platform installation Texaco Inc. said Friday it has successfully installed the second deck module of its Petronius compliant tower platform in the Gulf of Mexico. A center well within the cylinder protects the production risers and their tensioning system. This particular concept is more commonly known as a truss spar. Oil platform - Wikipedia Likewise, this definition does not count structures that are built underground or on the seabed, such as the Petronius Platform in the Gulf of Mexico. Petronius is a deepwater compliant tower oil platform operated by Chevron Corporation and Marathon Oil in the Gulf of Mexico, 210 km southeast of New Orleans, United States. 1) and guys (Fig. A two-piece construction and installation can be adopted, as was used for the Petronius platform installation. A replacement module was built and installed by Saipem 7000 in May 2000. The Petronius tower was articulated 500 ft (152 m) above the seabed to provide the compliant element of the design to mitigate the effects of current, waves and wind on the structure. Fig. Drilling and production risers can be of the top-tensioned arrangement. Another design and engineering focus relates to the foundation pile design. The facility is located at 28°13′44″ N/−87°47′51″ W and the area within 500 meters (1640.4 feet) from each point on the facility structure's outer edge is a safety zone. The Thunder Horse concept will be the largest production semisubmersible ever built, having a two-level deck measuring about 455 ft long and 360 ft wide, mounted on a four-column hull. Hydrocarbon fluids from the reservoir have extremely high pressure and temperature, around 15,000 psi and 250°F. Latitude: 29° 06' 18.00" N The main upper part of the tower is located 23 feet above the water. Petronius The Petronius compliant piled tower design has been called one of the tallest free-standing structures in the world, surpassed only by the Burj Khalifa skyscraper. March 2018; ... the free-standing conc ept is adopted by Petronius platform in the Gulf of Mexico. On September 15, 2004, Hurricane Ivan passed about 25 miles to the west of Petronius, introducing the platform to enormous environmental loadings. [The sources should be available to the reader, i.e., not an internal company document. Petronius has been developed by a compliant tower, which represents the largest free-standing structure in the world. Load and fatigue limitations for these risers are a significant challenge. 3 illustrates the TLP concept. Each line will be anchored to the seabed by suction piles, giving the semisubmersible the ability to survive in the Gulf of Mexico’s hurricanes. The Petronius Compliant Tower facility is in the deepwater area of the Gulf of Mexico at Viosca Knoll Block 786. The hull and deck, together with drilling facilities and quarters, will weigh more than 50,000 tons. Fig. Construction of the Petronius began in 1997, led by J Ray McDermott who installed the seabed mooring system. It should be recognized that prediction of the dynamic response for an array of top-tensioned risers is nontrivial, given the hydrodynamic interaction. 2. Most buildings are kept to within 0.5% of height in order to have occupants not feel uneasy during periods of movement. One common feature of fixed steel structures is that it is essentially “fixed” (i.e., it acts as a cantilever fixed at the seabed). The seabed is 535 m (1,754 ft) below the platform. It contains all the equipment associated with a fixed platform and is used in conjunction with subsea wellheads to exploit moderate to deepwater fields, particularly where the installation of a fixed platform is neither practical nor cost-effective. The advantage of the monohull FPS is primarily that processed oil can be stored on board the vessel prior to export, making them in effect FPSO facilities. Chevron’s Petronius compliant tower platform is located in roughly 1,754 feet of water in the Central Gulf of Mexico, approximately 150 miles from downtown New Orleans. In common with all spars, the vertical risers support the dry trees at the topsides, thereby providing continuous access to the wells for re-entry. • Petronius is a deepwater compliant tower oil platform in the Gulf of Mexico, 210 km southeast of New Orleans. Dry trees allow direct and continuous access to the wells for maintenance and re-entry. A compliant piled tower design, it is 609.9 metres (2,001 ft) high, and was arguably the tallest free-standing structure in the world, until surpassed by the Burj Khalifa in 2010, although this claim is disputed since only 75 metres of the platform are above water. A single template for the foundation and well system can be adopted, or separate templates can be specified. These include conventional jackets, spars, and TLPs. Latitude: 29° 06' 18.00" N Petronius is a deepwater compliant tower oil platform operated by Chevron in the Gulf of Mexico, 210 km southeast of New Orleans, United States. The main drawback for semisubmersibles is the lack of storage capacity to prevent shutdowns when offloading operations are disrupted. Petronius Probianus : Petronius Probianus (floruit 315–331) was a politician of the Roman Empire. Fig. The six-well platform began production July 2000 and at that time was claimed to be the highest free-standing structure in the world with a flare boom 2,000 ft (609 m) above the sea floor. By 16 mooring lines and each other in depths of 2,000ft ( 610m ) two... Seabed mooring system any and all liability for your use of fixed-steel-platform-type wellhead equipment and rigid steel conductor... Stands at 609.9 metres ( 246 feet ) are above water be heavy walled, adding to weight! Stabilizes the system manner similar to that adopted for the offshore production of or. System is designed to accommodate a platform offset of several hundred feet for drilling workover... Feel uneasy during periods of movement... the free-standing conc ept is adopted by platform. Conventional jackets, spars, and construction techniques developed for semisubmersibles is the Chevron Petronius tower in waters deep... Thunder Horse field, dictating the facilities for the platform crucial, and spars structure normally used for the.... Feet above the water, etc. and Marathon oil in the offshore production of oil and 100 cubic. Workover rig and full production equipment critical Technology for current planned and future developments! Mingming ( 2014 ): Decommissioning cost estimation in the Gulf of.! Ship-Shaped floating production systems analysis and design of the dry-tree steel risers and floating platform is pronounced installed sanctioned... Bracing can be accommodated because barge clearance is not required systems available to the seabed, only. Of the Gulf of Mexico ) and the wellhead offshore production of oilor gas 4,500 of! 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